Cancer Types – Skin Cancer (Non-Melanoma)

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Skin Cancer (Non-Melanoma): Overview

Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board, 01/2018

About the skin

The skin is the body’s largest organ. It protects the body against infection and injury and helps regulate body temperature. The skin also stores water and fat and produces vitamin D.

The skin is made up of 3 main layers:

  • The epidermis. The outer layer of skin.
  • The dermis. The inner layer of skin.
  • The hypodermis. The deep layer of fat.

See the Medical Illustrations section for a drawing of these layers.

About skin cancer

Cancer begins when healthy cells change and grow out of control, forming a mass called a tumor. A tumor can be cancerous or benign. A cancerous tumor is malignant, meaning it can grow and spread to other parts of the body. A benign tumor means the tumor can grow but will not spread.

Doctors diagnose more than 3 million Americans with skin cancer each year, making it the most common type of cancer. If skin cancer is found early, it can usually be cured with topical medications, procedures done in the office by a dermatologist, or a relatively simple surgery. As a result, skin cancer is responsible for less than 1% of all cancer deaths.

Types of skin cancer

There are 4 main types of skin cancer:

  • Basal cell carcinoma. Basal cells are the round cells found in the lower epidermis. About 80% of skin cancers develop from this type of cell. These cancers are described as basal cell carcinomas. Basal cell carcinoma most often develops on the head and neck, although it can be found anywhere on the skin. It is mainly caused by sun exposure or develops in people who received radiation therapy as children. This type of skin cancer usually grows slowly and rarely spreads to other parts of the body.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma. Most of the epidermis is made up of flat, scale-like cells called squamous cells. Around 20% of skin cancers develop from these cells, and these cancers are called squamous cell carcinomas. Squamous cell carcinoma is mainly caused by sun exposure, so it may be diagnosed on many regions of the skin. It can also develop on skin that has been burned, damaged by chemicals, or exposed to x-rays. Squamous cell carcinoma is commonly found on the lips; at sites of a long-standing scar; and on the skin outside the mouth, anus, and a woman’s vagina. About 2% to 5% of squamous cell carcinomas spread to other parts of the body, which makes it more likely to spread than basal cell carcinoma.
  • Merkel cell cancer. Merkel cell cancer is a highly aggressive, or fast-growing, rare cancer. It starts in hormone-producing cells just beneath the skin and in the hair follicles. It is usually found in the head and neck region. Merkel cell cancer may also be called neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin or trabecular cancer.
  • Melanoma. Where the epidermis meets the dermis, there are scattered cells called melanocytes. These cells produce the pigment melanin, which gives skin its color. Melanoma starts in melanocytes, and it is the most serious type of skin cancer. For more information about melanoma, please visit the melanoma section.

Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are generally grouped together and called “keratinocyte carcinomas,” because they begin in a type of skin cell called a keratinocyte, or “non-melanoma skin cancer” to distinguish them from melanoma. Melanoma is treated differently because it is more likely to spread than other skin cancers.

Typically, non-melanoma skin cancers can be treated with topical medications, procedures at a dermatologist’s office, or a relatively simple surgery. A dermatologist is a doctor who specializes in diseases and conditions of the skin. If the cancer is very small, medicated creams prescribed by a doctor, cauterization (burning), cryosurgery (freezing), or laser surgery may be used (see Treatment Options).

There are a few other rare types of skin cancer, including cutaneous (skin) lymphomas, Kaposi sarcoma, skin adnexal tumors, and sarcomas, all of which are classified as non-melanoma skin cancers. The rest of this section focuses on the more common non-melanoma skin cancers.

Read more about skin cancer (non-melanoma) here.

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